Publikationen

Kinderklinik

Direktor:
Prof. Dr. med. Joachim Wölfle

Publikationen unter Beteiligung der Kinderklinik

  • Miscarriages in families with an offspring that have classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia and 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018;18(1):

    Dörr HG, Hess J, Penger T, Marx M, Oppelt P

    BACKGROUND: The most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia is 21-hydroxylase deficiency (CAH). Both men and women with classic CAH have lower fertility rates than the general population, and an increased rate of miscarriages has been reported in affected women. There are no data on the incidence rate of miscarriages in families with an offspring that have classic CAH. METHODS: We studied families with a history of classic CAH. The families came from different parts of Germany and attended the annual meeting of the German CAH support group for parents and patients which was held in Hamburg in September 2014. The data was collected anonymously by a paper-based questionnaire which was completed by the families at home. The families also accepted the responsibility to address this question to their siblings. In all, the data of 50 families with at least one child with classic CAH, and the data of 164 parental siblings were available for evaluation. Miscarriage rates were calculated in relation to the reported pregnancies. RESULTS: Twenty-two miscarriages were reported from 19 families. At least one miscarriage occurred in 38% of the families, three families experienced two miscarriages and 16 families had one miscarriage each. The mean miscarriage rate was 15.8%. The heterozygous mothers had a total of 90 siblings (41 m, 49 f), while 74 siblings (33 m, 41 f) were reported from the heterozygous fathers. The miscarriage rate was 10.1% in the families of the mothers` siblings, and 11.4% in the families of the fathers` siblings. The genotype was known in all parents that have an offspring with classic CAH, but not defined in 82% of the maternal siblings, and in 86% of the paternal siblings. No child with classic CAH has been diagnosed in any of the sibling's families to date. CONCLUSION: Our data show that the miscarriage rate in German families with a child with classic CAH is not elevated.

    Pubmed
  • Expression and Regulation of Retinoic Acid Receptor Responders in the Human Placenta.

    Reprod Sci. 2018;25(9): 1357-1370

    Huebner H, Hartner A, Rascher W, Strick R R, Kehl S, Heindl F, Wachter DL, Beckmann MW, Fahlbusch FB, Ruebner M

    INTRODUCTION: Retinoic acid (RA) signaling through its receptors (RARA, RARB, RARG, and the retinoic X receptor RXRA) is essential for healthy placental and fetal development. An important group of genes regulated by RA are the RA receptor responders (RARRES1, 2, and 3). We set out to analyze their expression and regulation in healthy and pathologically altered placentas of preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) as well as in trophoblast cell lines. METHODS: We performed immunohistochemical staining on placental sections and analyzed gene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, we performed cell culture experiments and stimulated Swan71 and Jeg-3 cells with different RA derivates and 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine (AZA) to induce DNA demethylation. RESULTS: RARRES1, 2, and 3 and RARA, RARB, RARG, and RXRA are expressed in the extravillous part of the placenta. RARRES1, RARA, RARG, and RXRA were additionally detected in villous cytotrophoblasts. RARRES gene expression was induced via activation of RARA, RARB, and RARG in trophoblast cells. RARRES1 was overexpressed in villous trophoblasts and the syncytiotrophoblast from PE placentas, but not in IUGR without PE. Promoter methylation was detectable for RARRES1 and RARB based on their sensitivity toward AZA treatment of trophoblast cell lines. DISCUSSION: RARRES1, 2 and 3 are expressed in the functional compartments of the human placenta and can be regulated by RA. We hypothesize that the epigenetic suppression of trophoblast RARRES1 and RARB expression and the upregulation of RARRES1 in PE trophoblast cells suggest an involvement of environmental factors (eg, maternal vitamin A intake) in the pathogenesis of this pregnancy complication.

    Pubmed
  • Local recurrence of breast cancer: conventionally fractionated partial external beam re-irradiation with curative intention.

    Strahlenther Onkol. 2018;194(9): 806-814

    Janssen S, Rades D, Meyer A, Fahlbusch FB, Wildfang I, Meier A, Schild S, Christiansen H, Henkenberens C

    PURPOSE: To assess the outcome of breast cancer patients with local recurrence who underwent partial external beam re-irradiation (re-RT) either as part of a second breast-conserving therapy or following mastectomy. METHODS: Between 03/2004 and 10/2016, 83 breast cancer patients with local recurrence were treated with surgery followed by re-RT. The re-RT schedules were 45 Gy (1.8 Gy per fraction) administered either to the partial breast (n = 42) or mastectomy scar (n = 41). The patients and tumor characteristics predictive of local control, distant control, and survival (overall and breast-cancer specific) were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 35 months (range 3-143 months). The median time interval between the first irradiation and re-RT was 117 months (range 16-357 months). The prognostic factors for favorable overall survival rates were younger age (p = 0.045), lower T‑category (p = 0.019), and N0 category (p = 0.005). N0 was also superior to N+ with respect to outfield recurrences (p = 

    Pubmed
  • Isolation of a unique hepatic stellate cell population expressing integrin α8 from embryonic mouse livers.

    Dev Dyn. 2018;247(6): 867-881

    Ogawa T, Li Y, Lua I, Hartner A, Asahina K

    BACKGROUND: Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play an important role in liver fibrogenesis. However, little is known about their phenotype and role in liver development. The aim of this study is to identify specific markers for embryonic HSCs. RESULTS: Using antibodies against ALCAM and PDPN, we separated mesothelial cells (MCs) and HSCs from developing livers and identified integrin α8 (ITGA8) as a marker for embryonic desmin+ HSCs that are preferentially localized near the developing liver surface and α-smooth muscle actin+ perivascular mesenchymal cells around the vein. A cell lineage-tracing study revealed that upon differentiation, MC-derived HSCs or perivascular mesenchymal cells express ITGA8 during liver development. Using anti-ITGA8 antibodies, we succeeded in isolating MC-derived HSCs and perivascular mesenchymal cells from embryonic livers. In direct co-culture, ITGA8+ mesenchymal cells promoted the expression of hepatocyte and cholangiocyte markers in hepatoblasts. In the normal adult liver, expression of ITGA8 was restricted to portal fibroblasts in the portal triad. Upon liver injury, myofibroblasts increased the expression of ITGA8. CONCLUSIONS: ITGA8 is a specific cell surface marker of MC-derived HSCs and perivascular mesenchymal cells in the developing liver. Our data suggest that ITGA8+ mesenchymal cells maintain the phenotype of hepatoblast in liver development. Developmental Dynamics 247:867-881, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    Pubmed
  • Benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes: Correlating spike frequency and neuropsychology.

    Acta Neurol Scand. 2018;138(6): 475-481

    Tacke M, Rupp N, Gerstl L, Heinen F, Vill K, Bonfert M, Neubauer BA, Bast T, Borggraefe I, Further Members of the German HEAD Study Group , Baumeister FAM, Baethmann M, Schreiber-Gollwitzer B, Bentele K, Blank C, Held J, Blank HM, Liebrich K, Bode H, Braun J, Bosch F, Wagner R, Brandl U, Wetzel K, Brockmann K, Schlockwerder C, Dahlem P, Baudler I, Ernst JP, Mayer H, Feldmann E, Pattber-Wolff A, Fiedler A, Sonnleitner S, Gerigk M, Heß S, Feiereis T, Hikel C, Hoffmann HG, Rickeshenrich A, Kieslich M, Dewitz R, Baz Bartels M, Klepper J, Kleuker S, Kluger G, Kirsch A, Koch H, Meerpohl U, Koch W, Korinthenberg R, Stehle-Renner B, Krois I, Wegener A, Kühne H, Weis C, Kurlemann G, Elkemann U, Mandl M, Friedl A, Mause U, Müller M, Navratil P, Iken U, Opp J, Walter J, Penzien J, Prietsch V, Siegrist B, Quattländer A, Rating D, Reuner G, Schara U, Shamdeen MG, Struchholz H, Prinz A, Wendker-Magrabi H, Stephani U, Muhle H, Carlsson G, Straßburg HM, Ottensmeier H, Töpke B, Tatsek K, Trollmann R, Poida-Herzing E, Tuschen-Hofstätter E, Menschig M, Waltz S, Pickartz A, Weber G, Gehnen T, Wien FU, Antemann J, Wolff M, Serra E, Polster T, Freitag H, Sönmez Ö, Rheinhardt K, Traus M, Chröder A, Hoovey S, Navratil C

    OBJECTIVES: Neuropsychological sequelae are a feature of benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) in children. A correlation between the frequency of interictal EEG discharges and the cognitive as well as behavioral profile of the patients has been suspected but not proven. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children with BECTS that had not yet been treated were included into a randomized controlled trial. In the initial visit, EEGs were recorded. The frequency of interictal discharges was quantified. Correlations between the discharge frequency and the performance in a neuropsychological test battery were examined. RESULTS: The cognitive test results were within or slightly above normal range (Culture-free intelligence test: 99.4%-confidence interval [CI]: [50.3, 59.9], test standardized to a population mean of 50). Parent-reported behavioral abnormalities were statistically significantly increased (CBCL total score CI: [51.9, 61.9], population mean as above). Correlations between the frequency of interictal epileptic discharges and the test results could not be identified (lowest encountered P-value: 0.034, not significant after correction for multiple testing). CONCLUSION: The data do not support the hypothesis that the frequency of the interictal EEG discharges influences the neurocognitive performance or behavioral parameters of children with BECTS.

    Pubmed
  • Multidisciplinary Late Effects Clinics for Childhood Cancer Survivors in Germany - a Two-Center Study.

    Oncology Research and Treatment. 2018;41(7-8):

    Gebauer J, Rieken S, Schuster S, Hahn B, Gebauer N, Meidenbauer N, Brabant G, Metzler M, Langer T

    Pubmed
  • Short-term adverse effects of testosterone used for priming in prepubertal boys before growth hormone stimulation test.

    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2018;31(1): 21-24

    Albrecht A, Penger T, Marx M, Hirsch K, Dörr HG

    BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that priming with sex steroids in prepubertal children before growth hormone (GH) provocative tests is recommended, there is an ongoing controversial discussion about the appropriate age of the children, the drug used for priming, the dose and the period between priming and the GH test. Interestingly, there is no discussion on the safety of this procedure. To date, only little data have been available on the possible side effects of priming with testosterone. METHODS: We analyzed the outcome in 188 short-statured prepubertal boys who had been primed with testosterone enanthate (n=136: 50 mg; n=51: 125 mg, and accidentally one boy with 250 mg) 7 days prior to the GH test. Serum testosterone levels were measured on the day of the GH test in 99 boys. RESULTS: Overall, only five boys developed adverse side effects. Two boys (dose 125 mg) showed severe low-flow priapism and had to undergo decompression of the corpora cavernosa. One boy suffered from self-limiting priapism and testicular pain (dose 50 mg). Two patients reported testicular pain (each dose 50 mg). The single patient with 250 mg testosterone did not show any adverse effects. The total side effect rate was 2.7%. The serum testosterone levels of the boys with side effects were not different from the testosterone levels of the boys without any side effects. CONCLUSIONS: Parents and patients should be informed about the possible side effects of priming with testosterone such as priapism and testicular pain. However, the overall side effect rate is low. We found no correlation between the outcome and the testosterone dose used and/or the level of serum testosterone.

    Pubmed
  • [Medication safety in children : What role do dosing and formulations play?]

    Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz. 2018;61(9): 1139-1145

    Neubert A, Rascher W

    Medication errors are more common in children compared to adults due to often missing efficacy evidence and limited or missing regulatory approvals for paediatric drugs.Roots of errors are located at different levels. They result, for example, from missing clinical studies that particularly investigate efficacy and correct dosing in younger age groups, the lack of age-appropriate dosage forms, the use of harmful ingredients, as well as the complicated and high-risk prescribing process.Electronic systems may improve the quality of drug prescriptions and reduce medication errors. The basic assumption is valid, evidence-based data behind such a system. In contrast to other countries, such a database is not yet available in Germany. The Plan of Action for the improvement of medication safety in Germany 2016-2019 (Aktionsplan) contains an action point "Creation of a database for dosing of paediatric medicines". Initial funding for 2 years has been granted for its implementation.Through systematic literature searches and the availability and provision of up-to-date knowledge on paediatric medicines, medication safety for children and adolescents can be improved. A database with relevant information to support more correct prescriptions within the paediatric population appears productive. The Aktionsplan has paved the way for the dissemination of evidence-based drug information for the country's paediatric population.

    Pubmed
  • A Comparison of GFR Estimation Formulae in Pediatric Oncology.

    Klin Padiatr. 2018;230(3): 142-150

    Rechenauer T, Zierk J, Gräfe D, Rascher W, Rauh M, Metzler M

    BACKGROUND: Application of potentially nephrotoxic chemotherapy requires continuous monitoring of renal function for toxicity and dosing. Novel pediatric glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimating equations including cystatin C have been proposed to enhance the reliability of GFR calculation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined a pediatric oncologic data set with a total of 363 GFR measurements. An analysis of distribution characteristics and comparison of medians was performed to compare creatinine and cystatin C-based GFR estimating formulae. Furthermore, we investigated the clinical impact of different equations in regard to therapeutic consequences. RESULTS: Significant differences in estimated GFR values were calculated depending on the applied formula (range of median GFR from 94.8 to 180.9 mL/min per 1.73 m2) which may result in different therapeutic consequences for the use of potentially nephrotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. Significant correlation for all examined formulae was identified, however there were large fluctuations among the correlation coefficients ranging from 0.254 to 1.0. CONCLUSION: This study compares proposed pediatric GFR estimating equations in a clinical setting. It underlines the current limitations and difficulties of GFR estimation including potential dosing errors. Cystitis C-based equations can be used as alternatives to creatinine-based estimations when the appropriate laboratory method has been applied. A comparative calculator for pediatric GFR estimating equations along with background information is provided at http://gfr.pedz.de and may support clinical decision-making.

    Pubmed
  • Effects of Levetiracetam and Sulthiame on EEG in benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes: A randomized controlled trial.

    Seizure. 2018;56(): 115-120

    Tacke M, Borggraefe I, Gerstl L, Heinen F, Vill K, Bonfert M, Bast T, HEAD Study group , Neubauer BA, Baumeister F, Baethmann M, Bentele K, Blank C, Blank HM, Bode H, Bosch F, Brandl U, Brockmann K, Dahlem P, Ernst JP, Feldmann E, Fiedler A, Gerigk M, Heß S, Hikel C, Hoffmann HG, Kieslich M, Klepper J, Kluger G, Koch H, Koch W, Korinthenberg R, Krois I, Kühne H, Kurlemann G, Mandl M, Mause U, Navratil P, Opp J, Penzien J, Prietsch V, Quattländer A, Rating D, Schara U, Shamdeen MG, Sprinz A, Wendker-Magrabi H, Stephani U, Muhle H, Straßburg HM, Töpke B, Trollmann R, Tuschen-Hofstätter E, Waltz S, Weber G, Wien FU, Wolff M, Polster T, Freitag H, Sönmez Ö, Reinhardt K, Traus M, Hoovey Z

    PURPOSE: BECTS (benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes) is associated with characteristic EEG findings. This study examines the influence of anti-convulsive treatment on the EEG. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial including 43 children with BECTS, EEGs were performed prior to treatment with either Sulthiame or Levetiracetam as well as three times under treatment. Using the spike-wave-index, the degree of EEG pathology was quantified. The EEG before and after initiation of treatment was analyzed. Both treatment arms were compared and the EEG of the children that were to develop recurrent seizures was compared with those that were successfully treated. RESULTS: Regardless of the treatment agent, the spike-wave-index was reduced significantly under treatment. There were no differences between the two treatment groups. In an additional analysis, the EEG characteristics of the children with recurrent seizures differed statistically significant from those that did not have any further seizures. CONCLUSION: Both Sulthiame and Levetiracetam influence the EEG of children with BECTS. Persistent EEG pathologies are associated with treatment failures.

    Pubmed
  • Genome-wide association study identifies multiple new loci associated with Ewing sarcoma susceptibility.

    Nat Commun. 2018;9(1):

    Machiela MJ, Grünewald TGP, Surdez D, Reynaud S, Mirabeau O, Karlins E, Rubio RA, Zaidi S, Grossetete-Lalami S, Ballet S, Lapouble E, Laurence V, Michon J, Pierron G, Kovar H, Gaspar N, Kontny U, González-Neira A, Picci P, Alonso J, Patino-Garcia A, Corradini N, Bérard PM, Freedman ND, Rothman N, Dagnall CL, Burdett L, Jones K, Manning M, Wyatt K, Zhou W, Yeager M, Cox DG, Hoover RN, Khan J, Armstrong GT, Leisenring WM, Bhatia S, Robison LL, Kulozik AE, Kriebel J, Meitinger T, Metzler M, Hartmann W, Strauch K, Kirchner T, Dirksen U, Morton LM, Mirabello L, Tucker MA, Tirode F, Chanock SJ, Delattre O

    Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is a pediatric cancer characterized by the EWSR1-FLI1 fusion. We performed a genome-wide association study of 733 EWS cases and 1346 unaffected individuals of European ancestry. Our study replicates previously reported susceptibility loci at 1p36.22, 10q21.3 and 15q15.1, and identifies new loci at 6p25.1, 20p11.22 and 20p11.23. Effect estimates exhibit odds ratios in excess of 1.7, which is high for cancer GWAS, and striking in light of the rarity of EWS cases in familial cancer syndromes. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses identify candidate genes at 6p25.1 (RREB1) and 20p11.23 (KIZ). The 20p11.22 locus is near NKX2-2, a highly overexpressed gene in EWS. Interestingly, most loci reside near GGAA repeat sequences and may disrupt binding of the EWSR1-FLI1 fusion protein. The high locus to case discovery ratio from 733 EWS cases suggests a genetic architecture in which moderate risk SNPs constitute a significant fraction of risk.

    Pubmed
  • Contrast-Enhanced µCT for Visualizing and Evaluating Murine Intestinal Inflammation.

    Theranostics. 2018;8(22): 6357-6366

    Jung D, Heiss R, Kramer V, Thoma OM, Regensburger AP, Rascher W, Uder M, Neurath MF, Knieling F, Waldner MJ

    Rationale: To develop a simple and fast protocol for the assessment of acute and chronic experimental intestinal inflammation using contrast-enhanced µCT. Methods: For the imaging studies, an acute 2% and 3% dextran sodium sulfate (n = 15, female, 8-12 weeks) and a chronic adoptive transfer colitis model (n = 10, female, 8-9 weeks) were established over 9 days or 6 weeks, respectively. Throughout the experiments, longitudinal measurement of murine intestinal wall thickness and time dependent perfusion was performed on a small animal µCT system (90 kV, 160 μA, FOV: 60 mm, scan time: 17 s, image size: 512x512, layer thickness: 118 µm) between 0.5 and 30 min after intravenous bolus injection of an iodine contrast agent. Weight development, small animal endoscopy, and histological ex vivo analysis were compared to contrast-enhanced µCT imaging findings. Results: Murine intestinal wall thickness was significantly increased in inflamed colons of acute colitis at day 9 in comparison to pre-inflamed state. Perfusion analysis revealed a late contrast enhancement in acute inflamed colons and the renal medulla at day 9 compared to control mice. An increasing intestinal wall thickness was monitored 3, 5 and 6 weeks after on-set of chronic colitis in comparison to controls. A good correlation with endoscopic (r = 0.75, p

    Pubmed
  • [Renal transplantation: Opportunities and risks for medical refugees].

    Urologe A. 2018;57(10): 1200-1207

    Mammadova D, Hirsch K, Schwaiger B, Wullich B, Rascher W

    BACKGROUND: Families with children and adolescents with end-stage renal disease came to Germany from the former Eastern Bloc countries before the wave of refugees in 2015, in order to enable their children to survive with adequate kidney replacement therapy and in the best case a kidney transplant. METHODS: In a case study, medical records of 4 childen and adolescents were retrospectively analyzed. These patients who fled to Germany for the treatment of terminal renal failure applied for asylum and were successfully transplanted after the usual waiting period. RESULTS: Four of the eight children and adolescents who came to Erlangen for treatment of terminal renal failure between 2003 and 2013 received a functioning kidney transplant (deceased donor kidney) after dialysis therapy was difficult due to lack of compliance to drug and dietary recommendations such as fluid restriction. Since children and adolescents are treated with chronic dialysis only with the aim of kidney transplantation, a living donation was discussed but was not possible for medical reasons. 3 recipients are symptom-free with a functional graft. DISCUSSION: The case study demonstrates that children and adolescents fleeing to Germany due to their end stage renal disease are better integrated after kidney transplantation, have better chances of obtaining a good education and can be expected to live independently with their own income in the future.

    Pubmed
  • CTLA4 induction by Rhinovirus (RV) in pediatric asthma

    Allergy. 2018;73(): 301-302

    Koelle J, Haag P, Vuorinen T, Kiefer A, Zimmermann T, Papadopoulos NG, Finotto S

    Pubmed
  • Compound heterozygous RYR1 mutations in a preterm with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita and prenatal CNS bleeding.

    Neuromuscul Disord. 2018;28(1): 54-58

    Brackmann F, Türk M, Gratzki N, Rompel O, Jungbluth H, Schröder R, Trollmann R

    RYR1 mutations, the most common cause of non-dystrophic neuromuscular disorders, are associated with the malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) trait as well as congenital myopathies with widely variable clinical and histopathological manifestations. Recently, bleeding anomalies have been reported in association with certain RYR1 mutations. Here we report a preterm infant born at 32 weeks gestation with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita due to compound heterozygous, previously MHS-associated RYR1 mutations, with additional signs of prenatal hemorrhage. The patient presented at birth with multiple joint contractures, scoliosis, severe thoracic rigidity and respiratory failure. He continued to depend on mechanical ventilation and tube feeding. Muscle histopathology showed a marked myopathic pattern with eccentric cores. Interestingly, the patient had additional unusual prenatal intraventricular hemorrhage, resulting in post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus as well as epidural hemorrhage affecting the spinal cord. This report adds to the phenotypic variability associated with RYR1 mutations, and highlights possible bleeding complications in affected individuals.

    Pubmed
  • [Bilateral posterior persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous].

    Ophthalmologe. 2018;115(8): 680-682

    Hohberger B, Knorr HLJ, Mardin CY, Trollmann R, von Marchtaler P, Gusek-Schneider GC

    Bilateral persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) represents a rare entity of a congential malformation. This casuistic presents for the first time in the German literature the case of a 4-month-old child with bilateral posterior PHPV.

    Pubmed
  • Rearrangement bursts generate canonical gene fusions in bone and soft tissue tumors.

    Science. 2018;361(6405):

    Anderson ND, de Borja R, Young MD, Fuligni F, Rosic A, Roberts ND, Hajjar S, Layeghifard M, Novokmet A, Kowalski PE, Anaka M, Davidson S, Zarrei M, Id Said B, Schreiner LC, Marchand R, Sitter J, Gokgoz N, Brunga L, Graham GT, Fullam A, Pillay N, Toretsky JA, Yoshida A, Shibata T, Metzler M, Somers GR, Scherer SW, Flanagan AM, Campbell PJ, Schiffman JD, Shago M, Alexandrov LB, Wunder JS, Andrulis IL, Malkin D, Behjati S, Shlien A

    Sarcomas are cancers of the bone and soft tissue often defined by gene fusions. Ewing sarcoma involves fusions between EWSR1, a gene encoding an RNA binding protein, and E26 transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factors. We explored how and when EWSR1-ETS fusions arise by studying the whole genomes of Ewing sarcomas. In 52 of 124 (42%) of tumors, the fusion gene arises by a sudden burst of complex, loop-like rearrangements, a process called chromoplexy, rather than by simple reciprocal translocations. These loops always contained the disease-defining fusion at the center, but they disrupted multiple additional genes. The loops occurred preferentially in early replicating and transcriptionally active genomic regions. Similar loops forming canonical fusions were found in three other sarcoma types. Chromoplexy-generated fusions appear to be associated with an aggressive form of Ewing sarcoma. These loops arise early, giving rise to both primary and relapse Ewing sarcoma tumors, which can continue to evolve in parallel.

    Pubmed
  • Asymmetric Omphalopagus in a Triplet after In Vitro Fertilization: A Rare Case of Conjoined Twinning.

    Case Rep Pediatr. 2018;2018():

    Jabari S, Carbon R, Besendörfer M, Hartmann A, Rompel O, Hoerning A, Söder S

    Introduction: Asymmetric omphalopagus is a rare situation of conjoined twinning, in which a grossly defective twin is attached to the thorax and upper abdomen of the main twin. We describe a case of an asymmetric omphalopagus accompanied by a normal triplet after assisted reproductive technology (ART) and tried to further characterize the all aspects of the conjoined twins. Case Presentation: Perioperative diagnostic imaging was carried out followed by an autopsy to evaluate all aspects of the parasite accompanied by histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular biological evaluation. The parasite had well-developed lower extremities as well as upper extremities with a cleft hand syndrome. The sex was nondeterminable, but DNA fingerprinting revealed that both parasite and autosite are monozygotic, so are females. There was no sign of any axial skeleton or central nervous system. We found a rudimentary rectum with a nonpervious anus, a kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, and a blind-ending urethra. The blood supply of the parasite was connected to the vessel system of the autosite. Conclusions: To our knowledge, only two cases of parasitic omphalopagus after ART have been described to date. Altogether, 52 cases have been reported, and in most of them, the parasites were successfully separated.

    Pubmed
  • Influence of PCO2 Control on Clinical and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Neonatology. 2018;113(3): 221-230

    Thome UH, Dreyhaupt J, Genzel-Boroviczeny O, Bohnhorst B, Schmid M, Fuchs H, Rohde O, Avenarius S, Topf HG, Zimmermann A, Faas D, Timme K, Kleinlein B, Buxmann H, Schenk W, Segerer H, Teig N, Ackermann B, Hentschel R, Heckmann M, Schlösser R, Peters J, Rossi R, Rascher W, Böttger R, Seidenberg J, Hansen G, Bode H, Zernickel M, Muche R, Hummler HD, PHELBI Study Group

    BACKGROUND: Levels or fluctuations in the partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) may affect outcomes for extremely low birth weight infants. OBJECTIVES: In an exploratory analysis of a randomized trial, we hypothesized that the PCO2 values achieved could be related to significant outcomes. METHODS: On each treatment day, infants were divided into 4 groups: relative hypocapnia, normocapnia, hypercapnia, or fluctuating PCO2. Ultimate assignment to a group for the purpose of this analysis was made according to the group in which an infant spent the most days. Statistical analyses were performed with analysis of variance (ANOVA), the Kruskal-Wallis test, the χ2 test, and the Fisher exact test as well as by multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 359 infants, 57 were classified as hypocapnic, 230 as normocapnic, 70 as hypercapnic, and 2 as fluctuating PCO2. Hypercapnic infants had a higher average product of mean airway pressure and fraction of inspired oxygen (MAP × FiO2). For this group, mortality was higher, as was the likelihood of having moderate/severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and poorer neurodevelopment. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed an increased risk for BPD or death associated with birth weight (p

    Pubmed
  • [Flight Routes to Germany of Seriously Ill Children and Adolescents From Former Eastern Bloc Countries for Treatment of Renal Failure].

    Klin Padiatr. 2018;():

    Mammadova D, Marek I, Galiano M, Rascher W

    BACKGROUND: Increased patient mobility and restricted treatment of children with end-stage renal disease forced families from the former Eastern Bloc countries to flee with their children to Germany for adequate medical treatment. METHODS: In a case study, the patients' charts were analysed retrospectively. In structured interviews, parents and patients were asked about their flight routes to Germany, their medical treatment and their integration. RESULTS: From 2003 to 2013, eight children and adolescents with renal failure were treated with dialysis or renal transplantation in Erlangen. Most patients came with the help of human traffickers and a tourist visa. They often told that they had lost their papers in the excitement. One family received new passports from the trafficker with fake names and birth dates. The families had to pay high amounts of money in order to save their child's life. Although dialysis therapy was often difficult because of lower adherence, the overall course was satisfactory. Four patients have been transplanted successfully so far. CONCLUSION: This case study reveals new facets of patient mobility, since leaving home was the only way for the family to ensure their child´s survival. An ethical problems arose, as a chronic dialysis treatment in children seems ethically only justifiable if a kidney transplant is the therapeutic goal. .

    Pubmed
  • Medikamentenpriming am Beispiel der Therapie der Aufmerksamkeits-Defizit-Hyperaktivitäts-Störung (ADHS).

    Drug Res (Stuttg). 2018;68(S 01): S25-S26

    Rascher W

    Pubmed
  • Histopathological proof of the pathogenicity of a rare GFAP mutation in a patient with flaccid paraparesis.

    Brain Dev. 2018;40(4): 330-333

    Brackmann F, Coras R, Rössler K, Kraus C, Rompel O, Trollmann R

    Infantile Alexander disease is a rare progressive leukodystrophy caused by autosomal dominant mutations in the (GFAP) gene typically presenting with psychomotor retardation, progressive macrocephaly and refractory epilepsy. Neuroradiological hallmarks are extensive white matter lesions with frontal preponderance as well as signal intensity changes of basal ganglia and medulla oblongata with variable contrast enhancement. Here, we report an atypical manifestation in a 21-month-old boy presenting with flaccid paraparesis and areflexia. Cognitive, visual as well as fine motor skills and muscular strength of the upper extremities were appropriate for age. Weight and height as well as head circumference were within normal range. Clinical or electroencephalographic signs of seizures were absent. Cranial MRI demonstrated bifrontal cystic tumorous lesions with partial contrast rims, as well as space-occupying focal lesions of the caudate nuclei. Spinal MRI revealed swelling of the lumbar and cervical spinal cord. CSF and blood chemistry showed normal results. Histopathology of a subcortical lesion showed large amounts of Rosenthal fibers and protein droplets characteristic of Alexander disease. Sequencing detected a heterozygous mutation of the GFAP gene (c.205G > A; p.(Glu69Lys)) that has been reported before as probably pathogenetic in another case of lower spinal involvement. This well documented case draws attention to atypical spinal manifestations of Alexander disease and gives histopathological proof of the pathogenetic role of a rare GFAP mutation with marked spinal involvement.

    Pubmed
  • Front-line imatinib treatment in children and adolescents with chronic myeloid leukemia: results from a phase III trial.

    Leukemia. 2018;32(7): 1657-1669

    Suttorp M, Schulze P, Glauche I, Göhring G, von Neuhoff N, Metzler M, Sedlacek P, de Bont ESJM, Balduzzi A, Lausen B, Aleinikova O, Sufliarska S, Henze G, Strauss G, Eggert A, Kremens B, Groll AH, Berthold F, Klein C, Groß-Wieltsch U, Sykora KW, Borkhardt A, Kulozik AE, Schrappe M, Nowasz C, Krumbholz M, Tauer JT, Claviez A, Harbott J, Kreipe HH, Schlegelberger B, Thiede C

    A total of 156 patients (age range 1.3-18.0 years, median 13.2 years; 91 (58.3%) male) with newly diagnosed CML (N = 146 chronic phase (CML-CP), N = 3 accelerated phase (CML-AP), N = 7 blastic phase (CML-BP)) received imatinib up-front (300, 400, 500 mg/m2, respectively) within a prospective phase III trial. Therapy response, progression-free survival, causes of treatment failure, and side effects were analyzed in 148 children and adolescents with complete data. Event-free survival rate by 18 months for patients in CML-CP (median follow-up time 25 months, range: 1-120) was 97% (95% CI, 94.2-99.9%). According to the 2006 ELN-criteria complete hematologic response by month 3, complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) by month 12, and major molecular response (MMR) by month 18 were achieved in 98, 63, and 59% of the patients, respectively. By month 36, 86% of the patients achieved CCyR and 74% achieved MMR. Thirty-eight patients (27%) experienced imatinib failure because of unsatisfactory response or intolerance (N = 9). In all, 28/148 patients (19%) underwent stem cell transplantation (SCT). In the SCT sub-cohort 2/23 patients diagnosed in CML-CP, 0/1 in CML-AP, and 2/4 in CML-BP, respectively, died of relapse (N = 3) or SCT-related complications (N = 2). This large pediatric trial extends and confirms data from smaller series that first-line imatinib in children is highly effective.

    Pubmed
  • Idiopathic Mast Cell Activation Syndrome With Associated Salicylate Intolerance.

    Front Pediatr. 2018;6():

    Rechenauer T, Raithel M, Götze T, Siebenlist G, Rückel A, Baenkler HW, Hartmann A, Haller F, Hoerning A

    Idiopathic mast cell activation syndrome can be a rare cause for chronic abdominal pain in children. It remains a diagnosis by exclusion that can be particularly challenging due to the vast variety of possible clinical manifestations. We present a 13-year-old boy who suffered from a multitude of unspecific complaints over a long period of time. In this case, an assessment of mast cell-derived metabolites and immunohistochemical analysis of bioptic specimen was worthwhile. After ruling out, primary (oncologic) and secondary causes for mast cell activation, pharmacologic treatment adapted to the patient's salicylate intolerance resulted in a major relief of symptoms.

    Pubmed
  • Influence of factor XIII activity on post-operative transfusion in congenital cardiac surgery-A retrospective analysis.

    PLoS ONE. 2018;13(7):

    Fahlbusch FB, Heinlein T, Rauh M, Dittrich S, Cesnjevar R, Moosmann J, Nadal J, Schmid M, Muench F, Schroth M, Rascher W, Topf HG

    OBJECTIVES: Coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) plays a key role in fibrin clot stabilization-an essential process for wound healing following cardiothoracic surgery. However, FXIII deficiency as a risk for post-operative bleeding in pediatric cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for congenital heart disease (CHD) is controversially discussed. Thus, as primary outcome measures, we analyzed the association of pre-operative FXIII activity and post-operative chest tube drainage (CTD) loss with transfusion requirements post-operatively. Secondary outcomes included the influence of cyanosis and sex on transfusion. METHODS: Our retrospective analysis (2009-2010) encompassed a single center series of 76 cardio-surgical cases with CPB (0-17 years, mean age 5.61 years) that were post-operatively admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). The observational period was 48 hours after cardiac surgery. Blood cell counts and coagulation status, including FXIII activity were routinely performed pre- and post-operatively. The administered amount of blood products and volume expanders was recorded electronically, along with the amount of CTD loss. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the associations (odds ratios) of variables with post-operative transfusion needs. RESULTS: FXIII activities remained stable following CPB surgery. There was no association of pre- and post-operative FXIII activities and transfusion of blood products or volume expanders in the first 48 hours after surgery. Similarly, FXIII showed no association with CTD loss. Cyanosis and female sex were associated with transfusion rates. CONCLUSIONS: Although essentially involved in wound healing and clotting after surgery, FXIII activity does not serve as a valid predictor of post-operative transfusion need.

    Pubmed
  • Expression of the Alpha8 Integrin Chain Facilitates Phagocytosis by Renal Mesangial Cells.

    Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018;45(6): 2161-2173

    Marek I, Becker R, Fahlbusch FB, Menendez-Castro C, Rascher W, Daniel C, Volkert G, Hartner A

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Healing of mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis involves degradation of excess extracellular matrix, resolution of hypercellularity by apoptosis and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Integrin receptors participate in the regulation of phagocytosis. In mice deficient for alpha8 integrin (Itga8-/-) healing of glomerulonephritis is delayed. As Itga8 is abundant in mesangial cells (MC) which are non-professional phagocytes, we hypothesized that Itga8 facilitates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and matrix components by MC. METHODS: MC were isolated from wild type (WT) and Itga8-/- mice. Latex beads were coated with matrix components. Apoptosis was induced by cisplatin in macrophages and in DiI-stained MC. After coincubation of latex beads or apoptotic cells with MC, the phagocytosis rate was detected in WT and Itga8-/- MC via fluorescence microscopy and FACS analysis. RESULTS: Itga8-/- MC showed reduced phagocytosis of matrix-coated beads and apoptotic cells compared to WT MC. Reduction of stress fibers was observed in Itga8-/- compared to WT MC. Inhibition of cytoskeletal reorganization by inhibition of Rac1 or ROCK during phagocytosis significantly decreased the rate of phagocytosis by WT MC but not by Itga8-/- MC. CONCLUSION: The expression of Itga8 facilitates phagocytosis in MC, likely mediated by Itga8-cytoskeleton interactions. An impairment of MC phagocytosis might thus contribute to a delayed glomerular regeneration in Itga8-/- mice.

    Pubmed
  • Low-Frequency Stimulation of Silent Nociceptors Induces Secondary Mechanical Hyperalgesia in Human Skin.

    Neuroscience. 2018;387(): 4-12

    Sauerstein K, Liebelt J, Namer B, Schmidt R, Rukwied R, Schmelz M

    Secondary mechanical hyperalgesia to punctate mechanical stimuli and light touch (allodynia) are prominent symptoms in neuropathic pain states. In a combined microneurographic and psychophysical study, we investigated the role of mechano-insensitive (silent) nociceptors regarding induction. Electrical thresholds of mechano-sensitive and silent nociceptors were assessed by microneurography with two closely spaced intracutaneous electrodes (i.c.) and a transcutaneous configuration (t.c.) in the foot dorsum. For t.c. stimulation there was a marked difference between silent (median, quartiles; 60, 50-70 mA, n = 63) and mechano-sensitive fibers (3, 2-5 mA, n = 107). In silent fibers, thresholds were lower for i.c. stimulation (16, 14-19 mA, n = 8), but higher in mechano-sensitive units (6, 5-6 mA, n = 13). Corresponding psychophysical tests showed no difference between the stimulation configuration for pain thresholds, but lower thresholds for the i.c. stimulation in axon reflex erythema (12 vs. 21 mA), punctate hyperalgesia (9 vs. 15 mA) and allodynia (15 vs. 18 mA). Punctate hyperalgesia was evoked at very low stimulation frequencies of 1/20 Hz (7/7 subjects), whereas the induction of an axon reflex flare required stimulation at 1/5 Hz. Electrical stimulation which is sufficient to excite mechano-insensitive C nociceptors can induce secondary mechanical hyperalgesia even at low frequencies supporting a role of such low-level input to clinical pain states. Thus, differential nociceptor class-specific input to the spinal cord adds to the complexity of modulatory mechanisms that determine nociceptive processing in the spinal cord.

    Pubmed
  • Differential regulation of angiogenesis in the developing mouse brain in response to exogenous activation of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor system.

    Brain Res. 2018;1688(): 91-102

    Trollmann R, Mühlberger T, Richter M, Boie G, Feigenspan A, Brackmann F, Jung S

    Angiogenesis due to hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury represents a crucial compensatory mechanism of the developing brain that is mainly regulated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF). Pharmacological stimulation of HIF is suggested as a neuroprotective option, however, studies of its effects on vascular development are limited. We analyzed the influence of the prolyl-4-hydroxylase inhibitor (PHI), FG-4497, and erythropoietin (rhEPO) on post-hypoxic angiogenesis (angiogenic growth factors, vessel structures) in the developing mouse brain (P7) assessed after a regeneration period of 72 h. Exposure to systemic hypoxia (8% O2, 6 h) was followed by treatment (i.p.) with rhEPO (2500/5000 IU/kg) at 0, 24 and 48 h or FG-4497 (60/100 mg/kg) compared to controls. In response to FG-4497 treatment cortical and hippocampal vessel area and branching were significantly increased compared to controls. This was associated with elevated ANGPT-2 as well as decreased ANGPT-1 and TIE-2 mRNA levels. In response to rhEPO, mildly increased angiogenesis was associated with elevated ANGPT-2 but also TIE-2 mRNA levels in comparison to controls. In conclusion, present data demonstrate a differential regulation of the angiopoietin/TIE-2 system in response to PHI and rhEPO in the post-hypoxic developing brain pointing to potential functional consequences for vascular regeneration and vessel development.

    Pubmed
  • Effect of maternal smoking on stress physiology in healthy neonates.

    J Perinatol. 2018;38(2): 132-136

    Haslinger C, Bamert H, Rauh M, Burkhardt T, Schäffer L

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) on the neonatal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective observational study, salivary cortisol and cortisone levels were measured at the fourth day of life during resting conditions and in response to a pain-induced stress event in healthy neonates whose mothers smoked cigarettes during each stage of pregnancy and compared with controls. RESULTS: Neonates in the control group (n=70) exhibited a physiologic stress response with a significant increase in cortisol (1.3 to 2.1 ng ml-1; P

    Pubmed
  • Generic formulations of imatinib for treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia in pediatric patients.

    Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2018;65(12):

    Suttorp M, Metzler M, Millot F, Shimada H, Bansal D, Günes AM, Kalwak K, Sedlacek P, Baruchel A, Biondi A, Hijiya N, Schultz KR, Schrappe M

    Since the patent for imatinib has expired, the role of generic imatinib (GI) in the management of Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) leukemia in pediatric patients has had ongoing discussion. Some studies in adults demonstrated that equivalent doses of GI and branded imatinib (BI) result in comparable plasma concentrations and clinical efficacy. However, other studies found that GI users are more likely to stop imatinib, with intolerance and decreased persistence as the main causes. Economic factors also heavily influence GI selection. This article aims to review the present knowledge to support further discussion on the role of GI in the management of pediatric Ph+ leukemia.

    Pubmed